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seismic analysis of interlocking blocks in walls pdf

seismic analysis of interlocking blocks in walls pdf


This paper proposes new masonry infill walls using ductile interlocking blocks, and describes their availability for retrofitting existing structures. Although no reinforcement is provided in the proposed infills, they can resist out-of-plane loads by the interlocking mechanism between blocks. Three reinforced concrete frames were prepared, and two of them were retrofitted by installing the proposed infills, which were constructed in different bond patterns. Quasi-static loading tests of the specimens were carried out in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions, to compare their seismic performance.
As a result, it was found that the installed infills significantly affected and enhanced the seismic performance of the existing frames. Although the proposed infills were designed so that the interlocking mechanism was effective only for out-of-plane loads, the infills also contributed to increase the in-plane strength of the frames, which can be explained based on the lateral force-resisting mechanism of this kind of structures. Focusing on the behavior in the large deformations, the un-retrofitted frame axially collapsed as soon as the columns failed in shear. In the case of the retrofitted ones, however, the installed infills supported axial loads instead of the collapsed columns. Moreover, one of the proposed infills also exhibited not only a substantial lateral resistance in the in-plane direction, which was caused by friction between the blocks under axial loads transferred from the collapsed columns, but also a sufficient deformation capacity in the out-of-plane direction.


The safety and complexity of railway interlocking system (RIS) requires the use of advanced methodologies. Formal methods increase quality and provide highest confidence in this area. In this paper, safety analysis of moving block RIS is presented. The system is decomposed into four components, i.e., topology, network state, trains and controls. Formal analysis of the components is presented after further decomposition. Finally, the safety properties preventing collisions and derailing are formalized by integrating with moving blocks of trains under computer based control systems. The railway network is modeled in graph theory. Formal specification is described in VDM-SL and the model is validated using VDM-SL toolbox.A structural component need to be developed in masonry buildings construction is new interlocking mortarless concrete masonry blocks and a worldwide interest in the development of masonry of this type has taken place in recent years. In this study an attempt has been made to analyse a special interlocking mortarless hollow concrete block system which was developed by Housing Research Center of University Putra Malaysia. The system was subjected to earthquake loads using finite element method. This analysis is conducted by considering the hollow block wall, foundation and soil interaction. For this purpose, a finite element code was developed to analyze the masonry system under earthquake excitation. In order to account for the dry joint contact between the blocks and foundation and soil mass, an interface element was used. The response of the mortarless block wall with respect to displacement, stress and acceleration subjected to earthquake have been discussed and effect of applying dry interlocking joints for connection of the block on seismic response of the system is investigated.

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