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IV report


Industrial training refers to work experience that is relevant to professional development prior to graduation. It provides pre-professional work experience with specific assignments and responsibilities. An industrial training should be relevant to a student's personal career interests and academic courses of study. Productive industrial trainings helps students make informed decisions and improve their marketability after graduation.
Industrial Training refers to work experience that is relevant to professional development prior to graduation. One of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Engineering is that students must complete at least 12 weeks of Industrial Training. Industrial Training is normally accumulated during the semester breaks at the end of the third or fourth year. The Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) and Engineers Australia, which are the organisations that accredits all engineering programs in Malaysia and Australia, strongly advocates that an industrial training experience component of at least 12 weeks duration is included in all engineering undergraduate courses. Students should note that Industrial Training is an essential component in the development of the practical and professional skills required of an Engineer and an aid to prospective employment. Many employers regard this period as a chance to vet new employees for future employment. All students should make considerable effort and give sufficient thought into obtaining the most relevant and effective Industrial Training. Whilst difficult, it is desirable to obtain experience in a range of activities, such as e.g. design office, laboratory and on-site situations. It should also be noted that developing an awareness of general workplace behaviour and interpersonalskills are important objectives of the Industrial Training experience.

Industrial Training Objectives
a) To expose students to engineering experience and knowledge. Which is required
in industry, where these are not taught in the lecture rooms.
b) To apply the engineering knowledge taught in the lecture rooms in real industrial
c) To use the experience gained from the Industrial Training in discussions held in
the lecture rooms.
d) To get a feel of the work environment.
e) To gain experience in writing reports in engineering works/project
f) To expose students to the engineers responsibilities and ethics.
g) To expose the students to future employers as well as to introduce the Industrial
Training Program available within Curtin University of Technology.
h) With all the experience and knowledge acquired, it is hoped at the students will be
able to choose appropriate work upon graduation



Today, Energy resources, Telecommunication, Transport are the basic infrastructural requirement which acts as an indicator to the growth of any Economy. Transport includes road transport, air transport, water transport and rail transport. Transport provide useful page link between production centre, distribution areas and ultimate consumer. If we talk about inland transport mode then the one biggest transport industry comes in the mind the-railways. We cannot ignore mobility of various commodities and passengers.
Indian railways are the state-owned railway company of India, which owns and operates most of the country s rail transport. It is overseen by the Ministry of Railways of the Government of India. Indian railway has one of the largest & busiest rail networks in the world, transporting over 18 million passengers and more than 2 million of freight daily.
It is a hazardous to imagine Indian economy without railway. We always fill proudly and happy when we think that our Indian railway Asia s first and world second largest after the Russia under the single management. We may also fill amazing by knowing that Indian railway is world s largest employment provider organization. In Mumbai local trains services are popular and in Delhi metro train services are popular. In Mumbai every day trains carries 90 lakes passengers. That means if local train stop, Mumbai also stop.
So, we can understand the important of railway for a country like India.

Indian railways are older more than 150 years
On 1st of august, 1849 the great Indian peninsular railways company was established in India. On 17th of august 1849, a contract was signed between the great Indian peninsular railway company and east India Company.

As a result of contract an experiment was made by laying a railway track between Bombay to thane (56 kms). On 16th April, 1853 the first train service was started from Victoria terminus (CST) to thane carrying 400 people in 14 carriages, covered 21 mile (34 kms) at 3.35 PM. The time taken by the 75 minute. This is not first in India but also in Asia.
The coaching depot, at Trivandrum Central, Started functioning since 1976. It started with 50 coaches and now has 688 coaches. Integrated Coach Maintenance Facility (ICMF) started on May 6, 1999. The IOH activity was started on 20.09.2001. Conversion of all TVC based coaches into air brake system also took place. Underground pit wheel lathe started on 13.07.2000. The depot, at present is equipped with all maintenance devices.
TVC Davison is having the highest coach holding is southern Railway with 1420(bare) coaches maintained primarily and 224 caches are given Other End Attention. In addition to this Platform turn round Attention is also carried out. Himasagar Express which covers the entire length of Indian form CAPE, the southernmost station in India to Jammu Thawi which is the longest running distance in India belongs to this Division. The primary coach holding of Thiruvanathapuram depot alone is 606(bare) coaches are given other end attention and 215 coaches (average/day) are given platform turn round attention at this depot. A separate IOH shed is functioning to facilitate IOH schedule. IOH of 87 coaches at KCVL are also dealt here. Pit wheel Lathe with an average turnout of 200 wheel/month is also functioning very effectively. An Incinerator is installed her top dispose the biodegradable waste generated form coaches and year.
Thiruvanathapuram is one among the 16 railway stations in India that are to be upgraded with world class standers. As a step towards this, passenger amenities at the stations are being upgraded based on the Touch and Feel Concept of the Ministry of Railways.


The Indian Railway is organized broadly by functional groups. This is traditional how the cooperation is organized. The Indian Railways perhaps has less adventurous in changing the stricture: it has largely kept up what it got as a legacy since the British era.
The apex management origination is the Railway Board, also called the Ministry of Railways. The board is headed by the Chairman who reports to the Minister of Railways. The board has five other members in addition to the chairman. The General Manager of the zonal railways and the production units report to the board. A vast rail system as India s, the 3rd largest in the world, has been managed at a regional level. Indian Railways has divided itself into 16 zonal railways. They includes

Railway Zone

Central Railway
Mumbai CST

Eastern Railway

Northern Railway
New Delhi

North Eastern Railway

North East Frontier Railway
Maligaon, Guwahati

South Central Railway

South Central Railway

Western Railway
Church Gate, Mumbai

South East Central Railway

East Coast Railway

North Central Railway

North Western railway

South Western Railway

West Central railway

East Central Railway

Trivandrum central comes under Chennai railway zone. It is the second biggest railway station in the state of Kerala after Shoranur and one of the important rail hubs in the South India. Trains from here connect the city of Trivandrum to other state of India. The building of the railway station is one of the landmarks of Trivandrum. The Trivandrum central station was built by the .late Maharajah of Travancore SreeChitira Thirunal and inaugurated on 4 November 1931. No bricks were used for the construction of this station building; it was built complete with rock masonry. A second terminal was opened in 2004 to handle passenger traffic. This station is completely Wi-Fi enabled. This station is also noted for a whole range of amenities available within the premise. The station has book-shop, restaurants, accommodation, Internet browsing centers and even an essential commodities shopping mall. A second satellite station was open in 205 at Kochuveli, near the International Airport. Trivandrum is the first major city from south along the second longest train route in the world, Kanyakumari to Jammu. Only 14 meter gauge train was handles at the station when it started functioning. Now, 76 trains are handled on five platforms.

Intermediate overhaul (IOH) is performed about once is 6 month. The coach is disassembled from the bogie and is lifted up with the help of hydraulic machines. The bogie is moved to the bogie and wheel assembly section. In the IOH lane, maintenance work on the coach is done. Maintenance work includes minor painting works, detection of leakage in pipe fitted below the coach, welding works etc. Brake testing is also done along with the maintenance works.

As the name indicates pits will be present in between the track. Here maintenance works performed without bogie disassembly. That means hers with the help of pit lanes, maintenance below the coach is performed, without lifting the coach. The coach is halted over the pit and it remains on the track. Only general inspection is done in such lake. Minor cleaning works are also carried out along with it. If any problems are identifies, the coach is moved to IOH lane for maintenance.


Rail tracks are the surface structures that supports and guide train or other rail-guided transportation vehicles.

Most familiarly they consist of
Two steel rails on which the vehicles wheels run,
A series of lateral timber or concrete sleepers
A crushed stone ballast bed.
Below the ballast is a sub grade which may be the surface of the natural ground, or may have some geotechnical system installed to improve ground stability and drainage. The sub grade may loosely be coincided to be part of the4 track but the sub grade with the track itself is more properly said to form the infrastructure.
Railway tracks are generally laid on a bed stone track ballast or track bed, in turn is support by prepared earthworks as the track formation. The formation comprises the sub grade and a layer of sand of stone dust, known as the blanket, which restricts the upward migration of wet clay silt. The track and ballast form the permanent way.

Hot rolled steel in the cross section of an asymmetrical I-beam is usually as the surface on which railway wheels run. Unlike some other uses of iron and steel, railway rails are subject to very high stared and have to be made of very quality steel alloy. The heavier the rails and the rest of the track work the heavier and faster the trains the track can carry.


Jointed track is made using lengths of rail usually around 20m long and 11.9 or 23.8m long bolted together using perforated steel plates known as fishplates or joint bars. Consider the figure. It shows a bond main line 6-bolt rail joint. Bolts are oppositely oriented to prevent complete separation of the joint in the event of being struck by a wheel during a derailment.

Fishplates are usually 600mm long, used in pairs either side of the rail ends and bolted together. The bolts may be oppositely oriented so that in the event of a derailment and a wheel flange striking the joint, only some of the bolts will be sheered, reducing the likelihood of the rails misaligning with each other and exacerbating the seriousness of the derailment. Small gaps known as expansion joints are deliberately left between the rail ends to allow for expansion of the rails in hot weather. The holes through which the fishplates bolts pass are oval to allow for movement with expansion.

Because of the small gap lest between the rails, when trains pass over jointed tracks they make a clickety-clack sound. Unless it is well-maintained, jointed tracks does not have ride quality of welded rail and is less desirable for high speed trains. However, jointed track is still used in many countries on lower speed lines and sidings and is used extensively in poorer countries due to the lower construction cost and the simpler equipment for its installation and maintenance. A major problem of jointed track is cracking around the holes, which can lead to the rail head breaking.

Track needs regular maintenance to remain in good order, especially when high-speed train is involved. Inadequate maintenance may lead to a slow order being imposed to avoid accidents. Currently, maintenance is facilitated by a Varity of specialized machines.
Common maintenance jobs include spraying ballast with herbicide to prevent weeds growing through and disrupting the ballast. Over time, ballast is crushed or moved by the weight of trains passing over it, periodically requiring reveling and eventually to be cleaned or replaced. If this is not done the tracks may become uneven swaying rough riding and possibly derailments. Rail inspection utilizes nondestructive testing moths to detect internal flows in the rails. This is done by using specially equipped Hi rail track, inspection car in some case handheld inspection devices.

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