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industrial Visit ( KOTA SUPER THERMAL POWER STATION )
#1

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This article is presented by:
Gaurav sharma
(IV BE Electrical Engg.)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING,
JAIPUR ENGINEERING COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTRE,
TONK ROAD, SITAPURA,
JAIPUR- 303905
KOTA SUPER THERMAL POWER STATION


INTRODUCTION


The KOTA SUPER THERMAL POWER STATION is ideally located on the left bank of Chambal River at the upstream of KOTA BARRAGE . Thermal power station to produce electrical power for supply undertakings K.S.T.P.S. is designed for ultimate capacity of 1045 MW. First two unit of 110MW each, another three units of 210MW each and further the sixth unit of 195MW has been completed.
The state Rajasthan is predominantly rural and agricultural .While Rajasthan mineral sources are immense, its sources for power generation weren t commensurable with its requirements. The large expense of water, stored by the barrage provides, as efficient direct circulation cooling system for the power station thus avoiding installation of cooling towers. For bringing in coal for power station and machinery and equipment etc. a 15Km long private siding from the Gurla Railway Station on Delhi-Bombay broad gauge line has been laid-up to the power station.
Keeping in view the higher demands of power, it was decided to house initially a 2 x 200 MW thermal power station at Kota on techno-economical reasons as follows-
Availability of clean water required for station.
Location of station on Broad gauge main railway line.
Proximity to Madhya Pradesh Coal fields.
Concentration of load in Kota region due to large No. of industries located.

The coal linkage for the power station is brought from Dudhichua mines of Singrauli coal field which is about 800 km from Kota.
The source of Water (cooling for the P.S.) is the reservoir formed by Kota Barrage on the Chambal River. The water is drawn from this reservoir and after use released near the left main canal of the barrage. The comparative use of water from barrage by the P.S. is 2.75 cusec for each 110 MW unit. A single chimney of 180 Meters height with two separate flues for the two units each of 110 MW is provided. Similarly another chimney with three separate flues is also provided for another three units of 210 MW each. The disposal for fifth unit till now is also through the second chimney.



For Thermal power station the other advantage for choosing Kota are:
Availability of station amount of clean cooling water required for the station.
Location of station on broad gauge main Delhi- Bombay Railway line.
Concentration of load in Kota city and Kota region.
Constant power supply.
Proximity to M.P. coal fields.
Transmission and Grid substation quite nearer to the site.

INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING OF UNITS:-
Construction work for stage-I started in 1977 and first unit of 110 MW was commissioned on 17th Jan. 1983.The second 110 MW unit was firstly synchronized in July 1983.
The second stage units are synchronized in 1989. The second unit of second stage was commissioned in Oct. 1989. After that unit of 210 Mw was started in April 11, 1984.
The commencement of unit VI, in Stage IV started in July, 2001 and the synchronization of the unit was done in July, 2003.
Thus the units in K.S.T.P.S. are as:
Stage I - (Two units each of 110 MW)
Stage II- (Two units each of 210 MW)
Stage II- (one unit of 210 MW)
Stage IV- (one unit of 195 MW)

NEED FOR POWER STATION:-
Rajasthan is the largest state in the country. About 30% population lives in villages which are local point of development while Rajasthan mineral resources are immense. But its resources for power station generation not upto requirements.Moreover the state government has drawn up a rural electrification program with a large demand on agricultural load with rapid adoption & modern method of agricultural and industrialization of towns. The mode of living of people in rural and urban areas is changing rapidly with requirement of more power.
The hydro potential available on the Chambal has already has nested fully by the construction of Gandhi Sagar Dam, Rana Pratap Sagar Dam, Jawahar Sagar Hydro P.S.
It is because lack of adequate resources for power development that a Nuclear Power Plant has been established at Rana Pratap Sagar Dam for meeting the anticipated demands of Rajasthan.
The feasibility report for K.S.T.P.S. was prepared by central Electrical authority, in April 73, envisaged an installed Capacity of 2 x 210 MW units and 1 x 200 MW units. The planning commission declared the project in Sep 76 for installation of 2 x 110 units at estimated cost of Rs. 8160 Lakhs. In Aug. 77 M/C Design (New Delhi) Pvt. Ltd., were appointed as consultants for carrying out designing and detailed Engineering of project.

Land measuring 235.5 Hct. was required for the project in 1976-77 for disposal of the ash; a tank very near to power station measuring 157.26 Hct has been acquired, where ash in slurry form is disposed through ash disposal pipe lines.
Rajasthan State Electricity Board (RSEB)completed the construction which is done by Raj. Bridge construction corporation (RBCC) and other auxiliaries are supplied by Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) & Instrumentation Limited (IL), Kota.

ENERGY GENERATED IN KSTPS

Total generation Capacity
= (2 x 210+2 x 210+1 x 210+ 1 x 195) = 1045MW
Total generated Electricity (in one hour)
= 1045MW x 1=10.45Lakh units
Total generated Electricity (in 24hours)
= 10.45 x 24= 250.8 Lakhs units
Amount of Coal required (per day) in KTPS is
= 0.5 x 250.8 x 100000 Kg.
= 125.4 x 100000Kg.
= 125.4 million Kg.

This amount of coal is supplied by 5 trains of coal.

GENERATOR

Generator is the main part of thermal power station or any power plant. A generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
The generator has gas cooling construction enclosing the stator winding, core and hydrogen coolers .The cooling medium hydrogen is contained within the frame and circulation by fans mounted on either ends of the rotor .The generator is driven by directly coupled steam turbine at a speed of 3000 rpm.
Provision has been made for circulating the cooling water in order to maintain a constant temperature of the coolant i.e. H2 as measured at the fan section side which is in touch with the temperature of the winding, core and other parts as per load.
Each of the 2 units under stage-1 have been provided with BHEL make 3-phase turbo generator rated 137.5 MVA, 11KV, 0.8 pf, 7220 Amp, 3000 rpm and 50 cycles/sec .The generator has closed loop of hydrogen gas system for cooling of the stator and rotor at a pressure of 2.0 atm. is filled in a gas tight outer casing of the generator. H2 gas circulates inside the casing by two single stage rotor mounted fans on either side of the rotor .The heated H2 is in turn cooled by six surface type water coolers axially mounted inside the generator casing .The cooling water is supplied to H2 coolers from the BCW over head tank.
Each generator has terminal led out of its casing and a star point is formed by sorting the neutral side terminals by a sorting bar. The neutral is grounded by a 1-phase 11000/220V, 37.5 KVA. Neutral grounding transformer, whose secondary coil is laminated by laminated strip with mechanical ventilating holes, is connected across a 650V, class 0.4 ohm, 50 kW neutral grounding resistors and relays for protection of generator against stator earth faults and stator in turn faults (rating 1 amp).
The H2 gas inside the generator casing is prevented from leaking in between the rotor and shields, by a continuous oil film maintained between the rotor and sealing rings .The shaft sealing system have two independent oil sources associated pumps, regulators, coolers filters, electrical controls and alarm system. Two independent oil sources are provided for air side and H2 side sealing rings. The oil circuit of the H2 side of the shaft seal is closed and the oil is vacuum treated.

TURBO GENERATOR SPECIFICATIONS:-

(a) STAGE I

Make Russian
Manufacturer BHEL
Type T.G.P.
Apparent Output 137.5MVA
Active Output 110 MW
Power factor 0.8 lagging
Rated voltage 11 KV
Rated current 7200 Amp.
Rated speed 3000 rpm
Frequency 50 Hz
Phase connections Double gen. star
No. of generator terminals 6
Max. Output with air cooling 68.75MVA
Excitation voltage 230V

(b) STAGE II & II

Make KWVC Craftworks,Germany Manufacturer BHEL
Rated capacity 247 MVA
Rated Output 210 MW
Rated current 9050 Amp.
Rated terminal voltage 15.75 KV
Rated speed 3000 rpm
Power factor 0.8 lagging
Excitation voltage 310V
Phase sequence Double star
Insulation class B
No. of turns per phase/pole 10
Short circuit ratio 0.49

© STAGE IV

Make KWVC Craftworks,German
Manufacturer BHEL
Rated Capacity 247 MVA
Rated Output 210 MW
Rated Current 9050 Amp.
Rated Terminal Voltage 15.75 KV
Rated Speed 3000 Rpm
Power Factor 0.8 Lagging
Excitation Voltage 310 V
Phase Sequence Double Star
Insulation Class B
No. of Turns per Phase/Pole 10
Short Circuit Ratio 0.49
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#2
INTRODUCTION

For the power generation with 2x110 MW and 3x210 MW of K.T.P.S. authorities are required to be operative to active full operation. The auxiliaries are basically operation either on L.T. System i.e. 415 V 3 ? power supply is made available to the system after providing the station transformer of 3x50 MVA capacity with voltage 220 KV/ 7.2/7.2 KV & different service transformers of capacity 1.0 MVA , 1.5 MVA , 2.0 MVA , which are located near the load centre as the transformer having the voltage of 6.6 KV /415 V. The 6.6 KV power is distributed through 6.6 KV interconnected Bus System for all the five units with a control through DC of 220 V.

The 415 V power supply is done through a L.T. SWGR (Switchgear) which are located nearby the distribution transformer as well as the load centers. The all in -comers, which are breaker controlled , are having the control the L.T. SWGR are having the control system on 110/ 220 V AC. The 6.6 KV power supply which are either MOCB (Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker) of JYOTI MAKE or Air Circuit Breakers.



The 6.6 KV power supply to various draining equipment?s i.e. more is made through breakers which are either MOCB of Jyoti make air circuit breaker which are either of voltage makers as well as SF 6 of NGEF make. The LT supply is also controlled through air break circuit breaker which are either L&T make or English Electric Company of India. The various H.T. motors are switched on / started through on direct ON line (DOL) in order to inverse the availability of equipment at full efficiency without time gap.

Further , the 6.6 KV system which is normally in delta configuration and terms as an unearthed system so also to keep the running motor complete in operating condition in case of any one .phase of motor winding is earthed due to any one reason. Earthling is detected by an protection system with alarm facility to take remedial measures immediately and at the same time to maintain the generation level in the same condition, prior to occurring the earth fault the single phase earth fault is detected in due course till the motor is not earthed to other or another phase.

? PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM? is available through in area of each unit which helps in fast communication for prompt remedial measure.
Soot Blowers are there in the boiler area on the furnace side or Zone which helps in blowing the soot / ash deposition regularly of the furnace wall / economizer tubes to keep heat transfer at the required parameter.

In April 1973, Central Electricity Authority prepared a Project Report for power station comprising of the two units of each of capacity 110 MW for RSEB subsequently in September., 1975 this was revised by the Consultant Thermal Design Organization , Central Electricity Authority for invention of 2x110 MW units being manufactured by BHEL, Hyderabad in 1st Stage.

The planning commission cleared the project report in Sept., 1976 for installation of two units each of 110 MW in first estimated cost of Rs. 143 Crores.

K.T.P.S. IS DESISIGNED IN FOUR STAGES

I - 2x110 MW
STAGE II - 2X210 MW
STAGE II - 1X210 MW
STAGE IV - 1X195 MW *
Total Power Generation - 1045 MW
* To be commissioned shortly in August, 2003.

LOCATION

The Kota Thermal Power Station is ideally on the left bank of Chambal River at Up Stream of Kota Barrage . The large expanse of water reached by the barrage provides an efficient direct circulation of cooling system for the power station. The 220 KV GSS is within ? Kms. from the power station.

LAND

Land measuring approx. 250 hectares was required for the project in 1976, For disposal of ash tank very near to power station is acquired which the ash in slurry form is disposed off through ash and slurry disposal plants.

COAL

Coal India limited owns and operates all the major coal fields in India through its coal producing subsidiary companies viz. Eastern Coal Fields Limited, Western Coal Fields Limited/
Coal India limited is supply coal from its coal mines of coal producing subsidiaries BCCL, SECL & ECL to Kota Thermal Power Station through railway wagons. The average distances of SECL, ECL & BCCL are 800, 950 and 1350 Kms. respectively.

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